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Annals Style Guide for Authors

The Academy of Management Annals (ANNALS) follows a two-step process for article submissions. First, authors must submit a brief proposal that summarizes the critical aspects of the article. If a proposal is accepted, authors will then submit a full manuscript for review. Style guides for (1) Proposals, (2) Full Manuscripts, and (3) Manuscripts Accepted for publication are provided below.

NOTE: An invitation to submit a full manuscript does not guarantee publication in ANNALS. Editors reserve the right to reject a final manuscript that does not meet ANNALS standards. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, authors must submit additional information for these manuscripts.


Proposals should use Times New Roman 12-point type (or similar) and the 8½ x 11 page setting. Proposals should be no longer than 5 pages, single-spaced with standard 1-inch margins, and include page numbers in the upper-right corner. References, article elements (this includes tables, figures and graphs) and CVs are not counted in the 5-page threshold and can be included at the end of the proposal. Use footnotes placed on their respective pages (not endnotes). All Citations and References should follow APA format.

The proposal must include the following information with the following headings.

  • Focus of review: What issue or problem domain will your review cover? Why is this an important issue or area of research? Is there a sufficient body of high‐quality empirical research to warrant a review?
  • Relevant reviews: What prior reviews have been published on this topic? How will your review add value above and beyond what has already been done?
  • Review scope and process: How will you set the scope of your review and conduct a comprehensive literature search? What will be your inclusion/exclusion criteria? What process will you use to analyze the literature to identify integrating themes and novel insights?
  • New insights: What new insights are expected to emerge from your analysis of the literature? How will these new insights alter the trajectory of research in this problem domain? What implications and new directions will your manuscript offer for future research?


General Formatting

Full manuscripts should use Times New Roman 12-point type (or similar) and the 8½ x 11 page setting. Full manuscripts should be double-spaced with standard 1-inch margins, and include page numbers in the upper-right corner. Manuscripts should be limited to no more than 25,000 words in total, including all tables, figures, appendices, footnotes, and references. References should follow APA format.

Front Pages

Address. All manuscripts should include a title page. Under the title of your work, list authors' names, university affiliations (university names only, NOT departments), and complete addresses. Example:

  Current University 
  Building and/or Street 
  City, State, Zip Code 
  Tel: (000) 000-0000 


Acknowledgment. If you wish to acknowledge financial support or other assistance, add a note at the bottom of your title page.

Abstract. An abstract of no more than 200 words and the title of the work go on page 2.

Back Pages. Group references and any appendixes, tables, and figures go at the end of your manuscript. Continue your page numbering.

Headings and Sections. ANNALS uses only three levels of headings. Use boldface for all three. Main headings (all capital letters; centered) are first. Second-level headings (title-style letters; flush left) are next. Third-level headings (first letter of first word capitalized; indented; italicized; and run into paragraph) are next. Don't skip steps: no second-level headings before you use a first-level heading, for instance. Use second- and third-level headings in sets of two or more. Examples:

Early Work [2nd level]
Recent Work [2nd level]
   Case study findings [3rd level]
   Survey research findings [3rd level]

Footnotes. Use footnotes placed on their respective pages (not endnotes).


Technical terms. Help your work to be accessible to ANNALSs' wide-ranging readership. Define key technical terms. A technical term is a word or phrase that is not in a general-use dictionary with the meaning you (or even you and other published scholars) ascribe to it. Put quotation marks around the first appearance in your paper of each technical term, or define it.

Abbreviations. Avoid using abbreviations for the names of concepts. Use ordinary words for variable names—not code names or other abbreviations. Use the same name for a variable throughout your text, tables, figures, and appendixes. Names of organizations and research instruments may be abbreviated, but give the full name the first time you mention one of these. Names of software and some databases may be abbreviated.

Reporting math. Do not "talk in math" in regular text. Use words. For instance, "They surveyed 100 employees," not "They surveyed n = 100 employees." Do use symbols and numbers to report results and give formulas. Italicize letters that are customarily italicized (e.g., p, r, b, F, Z). Use boldface italic for vectors. Put spaces on either side of equal signs, minus signs, etc. Illustrative results within text go in parentheses. Introduce them with complete sentences. Example: One coefficient for the interaction was significant (model 3: β = 0.06, p < .05; model 5: β = 1.06).

Anthropomorphism. Do not describe inanimate entities (models, theories, firms, and so forth) as acting in ways only humans can act.


Present long but essential details in an appendix or appendices. Be concise. Label appendices "APPENDIX A," "APPENDIX B," and so forth. A substantive title, such as "Items in Scales," should follow. Label tables within appendixes "Table A1," "B1," and so forth.

Figures and Tables

Please follow these guidelines when submitting figures:

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing in your artwork.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Submit each figure as a separate file. Do NOT embed figure files into a Word or PDF document.
  • Submit line illustrations at 900 dpi.
  • Submit halftones and color artwork at a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • Save figures as either TIF or EPS files. Color art must be saved as CMYK, not RGB. Black and white art must be submitted as grayscale, not RGB.
  • Do NOT submit PowerPoint or Excel files.

Figures, unlike tables, contain drawings (e.g., arrows, boxes). Make sure your figures print out clearly so that they can be scanned.

Tables should be formatted as follows: Arrange the data so that columns of like material read down, not across. The headings should be sufficiently clear so that the meaning of the data is understandable without reference to the text. Tables should have titles and sufficient experimental detail in a legend immediately following the title to be understandable without reference to the text. Each column in a table must have a heading, and abbreviations, when necessary, should be defined in the legend or footnote.

Number tables and figures consecutively (one series for tables, one for figures). Place them at the end of your manuscript, but indicate the position of each in the text as follows:

Insert Table 2 Here

  • Each table or figure needs an introductory sentence in your text.
  • Use the same name for each variable that you use in your text. Don't use code names and abbreviations (e.g., "Profitability" not "PRFT").
  • Each table should report one type of analysis (which is identified in the title), and each vertical column and horizontal row should contain only one type of data.
  • Report only two decimal places for all statistics. Place correlation coefficients in the lower-left corners of their tables.
  • Use superscript small letters for table footnotes.
  • Significance levels go in a stack under your regular table footnotes. Example:
      † p < .10
      * p < .05
      ** p < .01

Citations. Citations are your in-text, in parentheses, identifications of other research. Every work that has a citation needs to have a corresponding reference (see "References," below). ANNALS uses APA style for all citations.
    Examples: Several studies (Adams, 1994; Bernstein, 1988, 1992; Celias, 2000a, 2000b) support this conclusion. But Van Dorn and Xavier (2001) presented conflicting evidence.

    Order. Order citations alphabetically. Designate two or more works by one author (or by an identical group of authors) published in the same year by adding "a," "b," and so forth, after the year. See the "name and year" example above.

    Multiple authors. If a work has two authors, give both names every time you cite it. For three through six authors, give all names the first time, then use "et al." in citations.

    • First citation—(Foster, Whittington, Tucker, Horner, Hubbard, & Grimm, 2000).
    • Subsequent citations—(Foster et al., 2000). For six or more authors, use the first author's name followed by et al. in all the citations.

    Page numbers in citations. Use this format: Writing a book is "a long and arduous task" (Lee, 1998, p. 3).

    Citation with no author. For an article with no author, cite the periodical as author.
        Example: Famine relief: Just a simple matter of supplying food? (2002). Nutrition Noteworthy, 5(1).

    Periodical as author. Analysts predicted an increase in service jobs (Wall Street Journal, 1999). For reports, handbooks, and the like, cite the "corporate author" that produced them.
        Example: Jones, B. N. (2014). Smith Corp. employee handbook (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Organization as author. Analysts predict an increase in service jobs in the U.S. Industrial Outlook (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1992). Such sources can also be identified informally. No corresponding reference will then be needed.
        Example: National Fire Protection Association. (2009). Fundamentals of firefighting skills (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. 

    Informal citation. According to the 1999 U.S. Industrial Outlook, published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, service jobs will increase.

    Electronic sources. Use a regular citation (author, year) if you can identify an author of one of the types discussed above (human, periodical, or corporate). If not, give the web address that was your source in parentheses. No corresponding reference need be used in the latter case.


ANNALS now uses APA (6th Edition) style for all references. All manuscripts should be prepared using this manual. A copy can be purchased from the American Psychological Association's website.
    Examples of APA Style for references

    Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family medication: Facts, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC: America Psychological Association.

    Article or chapter in an edited book
    Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger III & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309–330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Article in Print
    Howard-Grenville, J., Metzger, M. L., & Meyer, A. D. (2013). Rekindling the flame: Processes of identity resurrection. Academy of Management Journal, 56(1), 113–136.

    Websites (single page within a website)
    Nafees, Q., Yilong, Y., Andras, N., Zhiming, L., & Janos, S. (2014, November 19). Anonymously analyzing clinical data sets. Retrieved from


Publication of Accepted Articles

Accepted papers are copyedited. Authors review edits in page proofs. ANNALS's production team will contact you after the Editor in Chief assigns your work to an issue. If your work is accepted, please keep the Managing Editor Stacey Victor informed of changes of address and long absences.

Front Pages

Address. All final versions of Accepted manuscripts should include a title page. Under the title of your work, list authors' names, university affiliations, and complete addresses.

    TEL. (000) 000-0000


Acknowledgment. If you wish to acknowledge financial support or other assistance, add a note at the bottom of your title page.

Abstract. An abstract of no more than 200 words and the title of the work go on page 2.

Back Pages

Group references and any appendixes, tables, and figures at the end of your manuscript. Continue your page numbering.

Thank You! Your attention to the conventions described in this guide are appreciated and will make the work of everyone involved—you, the editors, and the readers—easier. Please contact Annals Managing Editor Stacey Victor with your queries on Annals' style.

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